Why India rejects opinion-based, perception indices where even Afghanistan, Hong Kong are more democratic



New Delhi: India has rejected a number of opinion-based indices for his or her bias, fallacious method and opacity owing to the “clout of a tiny cabal of Western think-tanks in this space…a form of neo-colonialism”.

The Financial Advisory Council (EAC) to the PM has punched holes in those subjective indices in a up to date running paper titled, ‘Why India Does Poorly On Global Perception Indices: A case study of three opinion-based indices-Freedom in the World index; EIU Democracy Index and Variety of Democracy Index’. The paper has been authored by means of EAC-PM member and creator Sanjeev Sanyal, and deputy director Akanksha Arora.

The paper has highlighted the absurdity of those indices—they evaluate countries internationally with regards to democracy, freedoms, civil liberties and so forth—since international locations equivalent to Afghanistan, Cuba and Sri Lanka have fared higher than India on a number of parameters.

Why now not simply reject those indices?

The running paper has taken the bull by means of its horns, confronting the suppositions of the so-called “experts” and the failings in their findings. They have got deconstructed the indices, ranging from the basic premises and observations.

“One way to respond to this is ignore these as mere opinions. However, the issue is that they have concrete implications. For instance, these indices are inputs into the World Bank’s World Governance Indicators (WGI) that, in turn, have approximately 18-20 per cent weightage in sovereign ratings. So, they can’t be completely ignored,” the paper explains as to why the indices wish to be faced, moderately than simply disregarded.

“Problem is that these opinions find their way into concrete things into sovereign ratings through the World Bank’s WGI index. The growing calls for ESG scores in investment/trade decisions will give opinion-based indices even greater currency. It is time to demand transparency,” stated Sanyal taking to Twitter.

“The clout of a tiny cabal of Western think-tanks in this space is a form of neo-colonialism,” Sanyal stated in some other tweet, including, “It needs to be challenged.”

Sovereignty of countries decreased to arbitrary subjective review

The paper has referred to as out the “experts” that cut back the sovereignty of countries to their “subjective perceptions”.

“Various international agencies come up with global indices which rank countries on various parameters such as democracy, press freedom, internet freedom etc. Some of these indices are purely or primarily based on perception of some “experts”.

On the other hand, you will need to word that those indices don’t simply shape media and public opinion, but additionally finally end up influencing some concrete issues equivalent to sovereign rankings. Those will turn into even more necessary in long term as Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) indices are offered into international trade/funding choices. Therefore, they can’t be disregarded as mere evaluations of a few company,” the running paper stated.

“A country’s sovereign rating is based on certain subjective factors such as assessments of governance, political stability, rule of law, corruption, press freedom etc., in addition to various economic indicators.”

This paper takes up the 3 indices—Freedom within the Global Index by means of Freedom Space; Democracy Index by means of Economist Intelligence Unit; and V-DEM indices by means of the Types of Democracy Institute, which are a part of Global Financial institution’s Global Governance Index (WGI), and, due to this fact, have important concerning India’s sovereign rankings.

Freedom within the Global Index — “Cherry picking” resources

That is an annual international file on political rights and civil liberties and is being revealed since 1973 by means of Freedom Space. Freedom Home is a NGO headquartered in New York, United States. It classifies international locations in 3 classes: Unfastened (F), In part Unfastened (PF) and No longer Unfastened (NF).

Within the first position, the anti-India bias of the index is mirrored in its making an allowance for the UT of Jammu and Kashmir, an alienable a part of India, as a separate territory from India and its observe of imparting it separate score beginning 1990. The index considers Jammu and Kashmir as ‘Not Free’.

Consistent with the EAC running paper, India’s rating at the index has persistently declined beginning 2018. The file observes that the decline will also be attributed to India’s declining rating within the class of Civil Liberties. “India is now considered to be only ‘partially free’ after it was downgraded down from free status in 2021 report,” the paper famous.

The paper rightly issues out the absurdity of this discovering for the reason that India were downgraded to ‘partially free’ class right through the Emergency imposed by means of former PM Indira Gandhi.

“Clearly this is arbitrary. What did the years of emergency which was a period of obvious political repression, suspended elections, official censoring of the press, jailing of opponents without charge, banned labour strikes etc. have in common with period of economic liberalisation and of today?” the running paper requested.

The file claims that the index is selective in the way in which thy select their resources. “Cherry picking” is how the paper classifies the resources used for ratings.

“Our analysis of the annual reports show that they use some media reports and cherry pick some issues to make the judgements.”

“For instance, the report notes that “Muslim candidates notably won 27 of 545 seats in the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, up from 11 22 previously. However, this amounted to just 5 percent of the seats in the chamber, whereas Muslims make up some 14 percent of the population”. Observe that choice of seats have higher over time, so it’s now not transparent how the location has worsened through the years,” the paper cited for instance.

In some other instance of the arbitrariness of the index, the running paper cited the demise of newshounds in India in 2021. “Another example is that the report notes that journalists risk harassment, death threats, and physical violence in the course of their work. Here Freedom House cites figures from the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) claiming that 5 journalists were killed in India in 2021, which is the highest figure for any country. However, the report ignores that from the same CPJ’s data, India’s 5 journalist deaths represented 11 per cent of the world total, and in comparison, India constitutes 22 per cent of the world’s population outside China (where journalist deaths are not included in the CPJ data).”

The EAC paper additional pointed to the sheer non-sense of the index as mirrored in its cross-country research or the relative score of nations on the earth vis-à-vis India.

Norther Cyprus has been rankings above India even after the ethnic cleaning of its indigenous Greek inhabitants and when Northern Cyprus is recognised simplest by means of Turkey and now not even by means of the UN. This is a Turkish-controlled space, even referred to as Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

Regardless of all this, In the newest file of 2022, India’s rating of the Freedom within the Global Index is 66 and Norther Cyprus rankings 77.

“Mongolia ended its one-party system in 1990 in favour of free multiparty elections only in 199011, however its score is 84 and it is categorised as Free Country,” the running paper stated.

EIU-Democracy Index: India much less democratic than Hong Kong!

Printed by means of the analysis and consulting arm of the publishers of ‘The Economist’ mag, the index began in 2006 and ranks 165 unbiased States at the state of democracy underneath 4 heads: Complete democracies; Fallacious democracies; Hybrid regimes; and Authoritarian regimes.

The EAC running paper cites how the questions are “quite subjective, making objective scoring difficult”, which additional muddles the relative score of nations.

The 2 resources for his or her ratings are “experts” and “public opinion”.

The file is so opaque that it “does not reveal the number, nationality, credentials or even field of expertise of the experts”.

The second one supply, public-opinion surveys are similarly fallacious. They are founded principally at the Global Values Survey performed by means of Global Values Survey Affiliation. If those are now not to be had for a rustic for the given reference duration, then it’s the skilled opinion that dominates this phase too.

Now, determine this: The closing to be had Global Values Survey for India is from long ago in 2012! “Since the latest public opinion poll has not been conducted after 2012, this implies that the score for India is based only on expert opinions since 2012 till today,” the EAC paper pointed.

Given this, one is sure to query India’s score on this index and the veracity of the index itself for the reason that ratings are absurd. “India has been kept in the category of ‘Flawed democracy’ since 2006, when the EIU Democracy index was first released. India’s rank deteriorated sharply from 27 in 2014 to 53 in 2020,” the EAC paper stated.

To at least one’s general wonder, the index of 2021 cites coronavirus pandemic time dealing with by means of the federal government as including to the erosion of civil liberties. The paper went on to invite if India used to be doing the rest than containing the pandemic, simply as different international locations. Clearly, No.

Within the 2022 index India confirmed some development, however that has been attributed to the repeal of the 3 farm rules, a language that betrays the affect of the left-liberal foyer that summarily been rejected from all quarters. This sounds more like left-leaning activists than professionals of any sort, since those “experts” are taking a political place.

The relative place of India additionally betrays the unfairness of this index. Unbelievably, the index puts international locations in acute political turmoil equivalent to Malaysia, Sri Lanka and even Hong Kong above India.

V-DEM indices: Widespread vote more important in Afghanistan than India!

Produced by means of the Types of Democracy Institute on the College of Gothenburg in Sweden, the file encompasses six indices: Liberal Democracy Index, Electoral Democracy Index, Liberal Part index, Egalitarian Part Index, Participatory Part Index and Deliberative Part Index.

Simply as the former two indices, this index too does now not expose its “experts” or how they are selected or why they are selected. Those professionals will also be teachers or pros from the media, or public affairs, equivalent to analysts, editors and judges. The confidentiality is more of a guarded secrecy that simplest provides to the opacity of the index.

Determine this: One of the crucial elements of V-DEM Participatory Part Index is Direct Widespread Vote according to the query as to what extent the direct well-liked vote is applied. So, whilst the United States and India rating 0 in this, international locations equivalent to Afghanistan rating higher!

“Now this is a question which is not a meaningful way to capture democracy. It may be possible for small countries like Switzerland, but not for country with size like India. India (Table 5) and even US gets a zero score on this variable, whereas Afghanistan (0.02), Belarus (0.064) and Cuba (0.151) gets a score greater than zero,” the EAC paper stated.

Conclusion: Make-in-India

The paper fairly pertinently observes: “…independent Indian think tanks should be encouraged to do similar perception-based indices for the world in order to break the monopoly of a handful of western institutions.”

“As one can see, the methodologies used by these perception-based indices is not tenable. Since these indices are inputs into the World Governance Indicators, Government of India should request World Bank to demand greater transparency and accountability from these institutions.”

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